Africa has the worst physical infrastructure and the most fragmented markets of any continent. Let's start with the infrastructure.
When it comes to roads, Africa has only 200 kilometers of roads per thousand square kilometers. That's one third of the world average. And although it has 12% of the world's population, it accounts for only 3% of the global passenger air traffic, making it very hard to get around this vast continent. To illustrate the great lack of direct intercity flights, just note that the travel from Abidjan in Côte d'Ivoire to Kampala in Uganda, you would have to fly via Istanbul.